A person designated by the supervisor in charge of entry to remain outside the confined space and to be in constant communication with the personnel working inside the confined space.

Authorized Entrant

A person who is approved or assigned by the supervisor in charge of the entry to perform a specific type of duty or duties or to be at a specific location at the job site.


The joining of two or more items with an electrical conductor so that all ends joined have the same electrical charge or potential.

Confined Space
Department Head
Department Heads are those people in charge of students or employees of school facilities with common interests, jobs, or objectives.

The action by which a person passes through an opening into a permit-required confined space. Entry includes ensuing work activities in that space and is considered to have occurred as soon as any part of the entrant's body breaks the plane of an opening into the space.

Entry Permit

The written or printed document that is provided by the employer to allow and control entry into a permit space and that contains the information specified in this program.

Entry Supervisor
Supervisor or the designated representative (such as the foreman or crew chief) responsible for determining if acceptable entry conditions are present at a permit space where entry is planned, for authorizing entry and overseeing entry operations, and for terminating entry as required by this program.
Note: An entry supervisor also may serve as an attendant or as an authorized entrant, as long as that person is trained and equipped as required by this program for each role he or she fills. Also, the duties of entry supervisor may be passed from one individual to another during the course of entry operation.

Identifying All Confined Spaces

All confined spaces located within a facility or under the facility's control should be identified. Once the space has been identified as Confined, the supervisor shall determine if a permit is required.

All employees shall be made aware of these confined spaces through training or instruction provided by supervisors or their designated representatives. 
Hazardous Atmosphere

An atmosphere that may expose employees to the risk of death, incapacitation, impairment of ability to self-rescue (that is, escape unaided from a permit space), injury, or acute illness from one or more of the following causes:

Flammable gas, vapor, or mist in excess of 10% of its lower flammable limit (LFL).
Airborne combustible dust at a concentration that meets or exceeds its LFL.
NOTE: This concentration may be approximated as a condition in which the dust obscures vision at a distance of 5 feet or less.
Atmospheric oxygen concentration below 19.5% or above 23.5%.
Atmospheric concentration of any substance for which a dose or a permissible exposure limit is published in Subpart G, Occupational health and Environmental Control, or in Subpart Z, Toxic and Hazardous Substances, of 29 CFR 1910 and that could result in employee exposure in excess of its dose or permissible exposure limit.

NOTE: An atmospheric concentration of any substance that is not capable of causing death, incapacitation, impairment of ability to self-rescue, injury, or acute illness due to its health effects is not covered by this provision.

Any other atmospheric condition that is immediately dangerous to life or health.

NOTE: For air contaminants for which OSHA has not determined a dose or permissible exposure limit, other sources of information, such as Material Safety Data Sheets that comply with the Hazard Communication Standard, section 1910.1200, published information, and internal documents can provide guidance in establishing acceptable atmospheric conditions.

Hot Work

Any work involving burning, welding or similar fire-producing operations. Also, any work that produces a source of ignition, such as grinding, drilling, or heating.

Hot Work Permit
The employer's written authorization to perform operations (for example, riveting, welding, cutting, burning, and heating) capable of providing a source of ignition.
Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health

An atmosphere that poses an immediate threat of loss of life: May result in irreversible or immediate severe health effects; may result in eye damage/irritation; or other condition that could impair escape from a confined space.

Lower Explosive Limit (LEL)

The minimum concentration of a combustible gas or vapor in air that will ignite if an ignition source is introduced.

Non-Permit Required Confined Space
A confined space that does not contain, nor has the potential to contain, any hazard capable of causing death or serious physical harm (with respect to atmospheric hazards).
Oxygen-Deficient Atmosphere

An atmosphere that contains an oxygen concentration of less than 19.5% by volume.

Oxygen-Enriched Atmosphere
An atmosphere that contains an oxygen concentration greater than 22% by volume.
PPE - Personal Protective Equipment

Any devices or clothing worn by the worker to protect against hazards in the environment. Examples are respirators, gloves, and chemical splash goggles.

PEL - Permissible Exposure Level

Concentration of a substance to which an individual may be exposed repeatedly without adverse effect.

Permit-Required Confined Space
The removal of gases or vapors from a confined space by the process of displacement.


  1. Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 1910.146 - Permit- Required Confined Spaces. U.S. Government Printing Office.
  2. National Safety Council Data Sheet 1-704-85 - Confined Space Entry Control System for R&D Operations, National Safety News.
  3. N.I.O.S.H. Training and Resource Manual - Safety and Health in Confined Workspaces for the Construction Industry.
  4. N.I.O.S.H. 87-113 - A Guide to Safety in Confined Spaces.
  5. Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 1926.652 - Requirements for Protective Systems.
  6. Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 1910.147 - The Control of Hazardous Energy.
  7. Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 1910.134 - Respiratory Protection.